Public Broadcasting Show on Bayou Corne, Big Quake Makes Fluid Move at Lake Fubar + Weekend News

See the LPB show from last night HERE.  < video link < alt. link from Stuart Smith

FLUID MOVEMENT UNDER LAKE FUBAR AT 8 P.M. - on the helicorders.  It lasted about 2 hours! It was probably set off by this mega-quake in Indonesia. M6.4 at 7:24 CST.

Florida - Sanibel Island waters - “Swimmers and surfers are being met with dead fish along some of our Southwest Florida beaches. It is happening on one of the busiest weekends for some fun in the water. Red tide is the culprit of what is behind the fish after fish along the beach. . . .”

Texas Brine put out a fact sheet on all the good they doing in Bayou Corne, dated 11-27.

The Dallas NewsNorth Texas earthquakes trigger dam inspections

The AdvocateMonolyte bankruptcy filing may affect residents’ lawsuit
Claimants say fire hurt health, property
“The company that owned and operated a chemical facility in Slaughter destroyed by a fire a year ago has filed for bankruptcy, which could complicate matters for the 32 East Feliciana Parish residents seeking damages for respiratory problems and diminished property values they attribute to the blaze.”

A reader  says, “Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, LLC is a Limited Liability Company and claims to be an Intrastate company, not an Interstate company. Who is their insurer? Shouldn’t the LA Dept. of Natural Resources make sure that these companies can cover any damage that they cause before issuing permits?

The Department of Natural Resources, Office of Coastal Management, has already issued one permit to expand and add 2 natural gas storage caverns to Jefferson Island Storage & Hub under Lake Peigneur in Vermilion/Iberia parishes without an Environmental Impact Statement, Federal standard, no seismic studies, bubbling in the lake, Chicot aquifer problems and already one horrific disaster there.

All they want to do is profit off the state and the people of Louisiana and not be responsible for their actions and the people they hurt.” - and we agree!

The helicorders are still going crazy. Instead of posting that every day we will put up a big headline when it stops.  Scroll down for more on them and maps of where they are etc.


Sinkhole Full Restoration (Video) + Wed. News – So. Berm has 5 CRACKS!

From Clean Water and Coast -


The Parish Blog has a new item – they are making the work site a CODE 2 (!!)

WWLTV – New containment berm cracks form around Assumption sinkhole < has VIDEO
“Wednesday, WWL-TV received these pictures of cracks in the containment berm that have formed over the past few days from Assumption Parish. In just a few days, one crack became five.

Crosstex managed to put out an update from Nov. 3rd -

They say they are testing a new pump.

Pathetic: BP launches website to “set the record straight” on the Gulf


Big news about Texas Brine being under-insured maybe . . . .

  • WWLTV – Texas Brine sued by its insurer over sinkhole site
  • The AdvocateInsurer claims Texas Brine ignored warnings
    “In a federal lawsuit, Liberty Insurance Underwriters Inc. cites internal Texas Brine reports, memos and an email suggesting Texas Brine officials were warned with increasing specificity since the mid-1970s — before the cavern was even permitted and mined — that the area where the cavern was planned was close to the salt dome’s outer face.

Friends of Lake Peigneur aren’t a bit surprised. This is from one -

Texas Brine’s insurance (Liberty) claims there is no coverage for this under its policy. Texas Brine’s insurance does not want to pay!!

Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, LLC is a Limited Liability Company, that means a type of business structure that provides its owners limited liability. This would limit the amount they would pay if there was another disaster there. Does Jefferson island Storage & Hub even have liability insurance?  About Lake Peigneur

The Department of Natural Resources, Office of Coastal Management, has already issued one permit to expand and add 2 natural gas storage caverns to Jefferson Island Storage & Hub under Lake Peigneur in Vermilion/Iberia parishes in spite of no Environmental Impact Statement, Federal standard, no seismic studies, bubbling in the lake, Chicot aquifer problems and already one horrific disaster there. Already one community (Bayou Corne) has been destroyed from negligence and apathy

Meanwhile, Back at Lake Peigneur . . .

Reasons why Jefferson Island Storage & Hub should not be issued anymore permits to expand or add 2 caverns to their natural gas salt dome storage caverns under Lake Peigneur

1. No Environmental Impact Statement, Federal standards done About Lake Peigneur

2. Bubbling in Lake Peigneur, cause unknown

3. No seismic studies done

4. Chicot aquifer, fresh water supply for 15 parishes

Water-level decline in the Chicot aquifer system during the period 1995-2005, based on data from the USGS/DOTD water-level network.

Eugene Owen, of BR, Director & Chairman of Utility Holdings Inc., holding company for BR Water Co., Parish Water Co., Inc., Ascension Water Co. and LAWCO, New Iberia, stated that over 8 years ago because of contamination problems, wells had to be moved, costing millions. Increased withdrawal from the Chicot Aquifer by AGL’s (JISH) proposed well-pumping would significantly accelerate the rate of potential contaminates, arsenic.

Steve Langlinais, engineer, Vermilion Parish, states a hydrologist claims that this could lower the withdrawal level in the Chicot aquifer as much as 17 to 75 feet. The Chicot aquifer has not recovered from the 1994 water withdrawal from the first two natural gas salt dome caverns and one concern would be more salt water intrusion.
Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, LLC 2009 OPERATING AGREEMENT with Louisiana

3.4. Water Rights; Chicot Aquifer Withdrawal Restriction. Further without limiting the foregoing, and subject to obtaining any approvals required under Applicable Law, Jefferson Island shall have the right to drill for and extract water as may be necessary, incidental, or desirable for the Permitted Purposes, including, without limitation

5. Already one horrific disaster there in 1980 < video

One community, Bayou Corne, has been destroyed from negligence and apathy. Louisiana’s Departments of Natural Resources (DNR) and Environmental Quality (DEQ), ignored explicit warnings of potential problems at that site. It is time for the State of Louisiana to do their job and protect the citizens of Louisiana and their property.

Catching Up on Lake Peigneur Status


Residents in Iberia Parish are under attack by AGL Resources who are poised to wreck their beloved Lake Peigneur. Lake Peigneur already has tell-tale bubbling and mysterious discharges from the caverns below. The residents want their water supply protected and Lake Peigneur restored to its natural state.
2006 article -  AGL Resources sued the State of Louisiana

ERATH, La., Aug. 19, 2006 — AGL Resources (NYSE: AGL) subsidiary Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, LLC (JISH) negotiates tentative agreement with the state of Louisiana that, subject to approval, would resolve the pending lawsuit between the parties over a disputed mineral lease. About Lake Peigneur

AGL had failed to pay their lease to the State.

No. 2011 CA 0882.Court of Appeals of Louisiana, First Circuit.

Judgment Rendered: July 15, 2011. The facility consists of salt caverns located beneath Lake Peigneur, as well as various facilities, including flow lines, wells, and wellheads.
After Jefferson Island received notice of the 2006 ad valorem assessment of its property by the Iberia Parish Assessor (Assessor), Rickey J. Huval, Sr., it filed a timely protest, first with the Assessor and then with the Iberia Parish Board of Review, which upheld the assessment. Jefferson Island timely paid the ad valorem taxes under protest, and then filed an appeal of the assessment to the LTC.
Upon receiving its 2007 ad valorem assessment. . . .

AGL Resources “Testing” Caverns at Lake Peigneur

From their website -

Welcome to Jefferson Island Storage & Hub

Please note the testing for July 23,2013 has been postponed to July 30, 2013.

Effective July 30, 2013 at 9:00 AM Central Time, Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, L.L.C. (JISH) will be performing an inventory verification test at each of our two caverns, scheduled to last up to 4 days total for both caverns. The test will be performed on each cavern independently, and only one cavern will be in service during the planned service outage. JISH’s ability to accept injection and withdrawal nominations will be limited to the capacity of the sole cavern in service which could be reduced by 23% to 67%. Injection and withdrawal nominations will be processed and capacity will be allocated in accordance with the scheduling and priority of service provisions (Article 9) in JISH’s Statement of Operating Terms and Conditions as posted.

This is moments before they have to explain themselves in court!

* * * * * *

From Save Lake Peigneur:

We have been rescheduled to Monday, August 19 at 9:30.

We are first on the docket. I have been told that this will be it unless an attorney from the DNR has a new reason.

Meanwhile, as I write this, AGL has barges in the water. They are “surveying the wells and testing bottom pressure.” I wonder if we might have access to the pictures they are taking of the wells? This must be for the permit therefore this makes it public unless of course it’s seismic which the public is not allowed to see. Like we care about where the oil & gas is. All we have ever cared about is saving our water, our lake and our lives.

This Saturday marks the one year point of the Bayou Corne disaster.They are having a commemoration at 10AM. the sinkhole now 22 acres (from 9 acres) 700′ or more deep at the center, most families still not settled with the company. If Hwy. 70 fails the depreciation of their homes will be even more significant.

Next week marks the 7th anniversary of Governor Blanco stating an Environmental Impact Statement would be required before permitting cavern expansion at Jefferson Island Salt Dome. Why hasn’t our state demanded the same? Oh, I forgot, Don Briggs recently that he “can’t believe the Office of Conservation broke it’s own rules” when granting the permit. Meaning that Coastal Management should have just granted the permit without stipulations.

Please try to be present at the hearing. We need people your presence. Please even if only for 15 minutes it will be enough to show that you care.

We have the best drinking water! Please help save it! The families from Grand Bayou and Bayou Corne have lived through tragedy and their drinking water contaminated. If you think this can not happen here you are gravely wrong.

Your presence is your voice. Please mark your calendars for August 19, 9:30 AM at Iberia Parish Courthouse, Iberia Street, New Iberia.

We wish our friends in Bayou Corne well on this sad weekend. 
About Lake Peigneur

Louisiana Reps Get the Low Down on AGL Resources

sent in -

Email to Louisiana State Senators and Representatives


Please help stop any  more permits to AGL Resources, Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, until an Environmental Impact Statement and Seismic Studies can be done.  There has already been one major disaster at that location.  The first permits should never have been issued. Now there is bubbling in Lake Peigneur and the cause is not known. 

The Louisiana DNR continued to issue permits in the Bayou Corne area for years when there were problems.  The DNR is still issuing permits in that area?  The Bayou Corne sinkhole is an ongoing major disaster and has destroyed people’s lives.

About Lake Peigneur

When these two communities at different times went to Baton Rouge and met with members of the Senate Natural Resources Committee most members did not treat them with any respect.  Both of these communities were treated more like nuisances. The Chairman of the Senate Natural Resources Committee has shown poor leadership for dealing with the citizens of these areas that have pleaded for help.  Maybe this comes from the top, Governor  Bobby Jindal who took 7 mos. before he even bothered to visit the residents of Bayou Corne.

Baddies, AGL Resources -  More on Lake Peigneur Foe, AGL Resources

Lake Peigneur Residents Need Your Help Next FRIDAY

Please come to the Iberia Parish Courthouse, 2nd floor,
Friday  July 12th
at 10:00am. 
Iberia 16th Judicial District Court
at    300 Iberia Street, New Iberia LA

We desperately need your help and presence – Friday, July 12.
Citizen Group Sues to Hold LDNR Accountable

Plaintiffs including the Louisiana Environmental Action Network (LEAN) and Save Lake Peigneur, Inc. filed a lawsuit in the 16th Judicial District Court of Louisiana against the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (LDNR), alleging that the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, Office of Coastal Management, violated the Louisiana Constitution and its own Guidelines by issuing a Coastal Use Permit (CUP) to Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, LLC (JISH), for a project to create two new natural gas storage caverns in the Jefferson Island salt dome underneath Lake Peigneur.

Next Friday, July 12 at 10AM our first hearing pertaining to the lawsuit will be held.

We ask for your help.
The DNR and AGL Resources are attempting to have the case dismissed.
Families from Grand Bayou evacuated in 2003. Last August 150 families evacuated and remain displaced from Bayou Corne. Their aquifer is contaminated, their land is contaminated. A letter written to DNR Commissioner Jim Welch by a professional in the petroleum industry is illuminating. I urge you to read it at
There is a population of approximately 4000 in a one-mile radius of Lake Peigneur. The Chicot Aquifer supplies 15 parishes.

You can make a difference!

I understand how difficult it is to find the time to attend or participate, but so does the opposition. They have the advantage and when it is too late, nothing can be done.
We need this case to move forward. Those that live in the parishes that will be affected by this project we ask for your presence showing our support for justice. This case needs to be heard.
The United States is a democracy. As citizens we seek to believe in our justice system.
Please help us if only by being there for 15 minutes.
Iberia Parish Courthouse, 2nd floor 10AM. Please leave cell phones in car. You will not be allowed in the courtroom if you have a cellphone.
“We need you!!!  Pleas let me know if you can be there. Thank you!”
 - Nara & Board of Directors Save Lake Peigneur

Ret. Army Lt. Gen. Russel Honoré at the Bayou Corne meeting in Pierre Part July 3rd is ready to help.

Louisiana Department of Natural Resources still   issuing permits for Bayou Corne salt dome caverns!

About Lake Peigneur

Lake Peigneur is BUBBLING and DNR is DITHERING !!

KATC – (Feb.) State Officials Investigate Bubbling Lake Peigneur

Join LEAN‘s e-mail list.

We added a button on the sidebar() to link to the prior articles on this preventable disaster looming at Lake Peigneur. Even though it isn’t in Assumption Parish it is very related to the events reported here.

Info on Save Lake Peigneur campaign and the fight to keep the water safe

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More on ALG Resources Designs on Lake Peigeur

 AGL Resources has been attempting to expand their Jefferson Island Storage & Hub natural gas salt dome caverns.  AGL’s information about Jefferson Island Storage & Hub’s expansion  is on their web site.  It was copied from the web site on Oct 26, 2012.  About Lake Peigneur

From the website (blue) and comments (pink) sent to us -

Jefferson Island Storage and Hub Q & A

What is Jefferson Island Storage & Hub?
Jefferson Island Storage & Hub (JISH) is a salt dome natural gas storage facility owned by AGL Resources and located near Erath, Louisiana (Vermilion and Iberia parishes). At JISH, currently two underground salt caverns are used to store natural gas before it is put into pipelines and sent to residential and commercial customers throughout the state and country.

JISH has filed applications for permits for the expansion with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) to perform dredging operations at Lake Peigneur. Filed with the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources to drill two new brine extraction caverns in Lake Peigneur; three brine disposal wells on the existing JISH property, as well as permits for fresh water wells. JISH has also submitted permit applications with the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources to construct and operate pipelines from the plant to the new wells.

What does JISH want to do?
AGL Resources has applied for permits to expand the JISH storage space by adding two more caverns.

Why does JISH need new caverns?
The abrupt escalation of fossil fuel prices after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the instability of the Middle East emphasized the importance of reliable supplies of natural gas and oil in the United States. It was decided to expand JISH to ensure that AGL Resources always has abundant supplies of natural gas to meet its customers’ needs in a timely manner.

AGL Resources serves customers in Virginia, New Jersey, Tennessee, Maryland, Georgia, Illinois, Ohio, Florida and New York. 

Some companies that control America’s natural gas are pushing for government approval to export gas overseas for higher profits on the international market, a move that will significantly drive up prices in the United States because this nation still imports more than 10 percent of its domestic needs.

Among the biggest expected customers for American gas exports: energy-thirsty China, other Asian nations, Europe, Caribbean and Bahamas

The company will not commit to storing only natural gas in the caverns, as the operating agreement allows for the storage of other resources including carbon dioxide and oil.

The company chose Jefferson Island because of the location’s potential for expansion. Company representatives could not promise that no additional caverns would be built after this project.


How will JISH create the new caverns?
JISH will use salt extraction to carve out caverns 1,500 feet below the lake bottom. Salt caverns are formed by injecting a water stream down a well bore in order to “wash” a cavity in a thick deposit of salt. The wall of the completed cavern is insoluble and impervious to leakages.

Where will the water come from for the process?
Water from the Chicot Aquifer will be used to create the new caverns. An independent engineering firm, URS Corporation of Baton Rouge, La., performed an analysis of the impact of the process on the Chicot Aquifer that confirmed that the Chicot has an abundant supply of water that will not be compromised by AGL Resources’ withdrawals. With 29,400 employees, URS Corporation is one of the largest engineering design firms worldwide and a leading U.S. federal government contractor (

AGL Resources will use 5.18 million gallons a day…  from the Chicot Aquifer.  million gallons of water a day for at least 2 years to expand the two caverns.  Plus any additional caverns built.  The salt water will then be pumped into underground wells never to be used again, unlike farmers pumping well water.

Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, LLC 2009 OPERATING AGREEMENT with Louisiana

3.4. Water Rights; Chicot Aquifer Withdrawal Restriction. Further without limiting the foregoing, and subject to obtaining any approvals required under Applicable Law, Jefferson Island shall have the right to drill for and extract water as may be necessary, incidental, or desirable for the Permitted Purposes, including, without limitation,

Water-level declined in the Chicot aquifer system during the period 1995-2005, based on data from the USGS/DOTD water-level network.

The USGS has not conducted any studies that were specially designed to assess the effects of groundwater withdrawals at Jefferson Island Storage & Hub.

How much water will the process use?
Approximately 800 millions of water is pumped out of the Chicot Aquifer daily by numerous commercial and non-commercial users. AGL Resources will use 5.18 million gallons a day, approximately 0.6 to 2 percent of its historical usage. The geo-hydraulic study by URS determined that withdrawals by AGL Resources will not adversely impact the water levels in the aquifer nor increase the odds of naturally occurring saltwater upwelling into the freshwater zone. In other words, the quality and the availability of water from the Chicot Aquifer will not be affected by JISH construction.

Eugene Owen, of Baton Rouge, Director BR Water Co.,  Parish Water  Co.,  Inc.,  Ascension  Water  Co. and LAWCO, New Iberia,  stated…. Increased withdrawal from the Chicot Aquifer by AGL’s (JISH) proposed well-pumping would significantly accelerate the rate of potential contaminates, arsenic.

What other environmental studies has AGL Resources conducted?
AGL Resources conducted an environmental report similar to a Federal Environmental Impact Statement. In addition, the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality has issued a Water Quality Certification as well.

AGL Resources has not conducted an Environmental Impact Statement or Seismic Studies.
One concern voiced by residents is noise. Will more caverns mean more noise?
When the gas is put into the caverns, the injection process uses machines called compressors to insert the gas into the caverns. The current compressors do make noise, but in response to concerns from residents, AGL Resources is retrofitting the compressors with baffling to muffle the noise. Technology has improved, so the compressors for the new caverns will operate more quietly.

Feb 1, 2008

Following a power outage residents said they heard deafening noises from the plant and natural gas being released.

AGL spokesman Jack Holt confirmed that some gas was released from the plant Tuesday night following the power outage, but that it was in accordance with safety procedures and posed no hazard to the area.

“The release was a result of the reduction of air pressure in our plant control systems,” Holt said. “Air pressure holds the safety valves in the normal closed position to prevent gas from releasing. When the air pressure reaches a low point, the valves move into another position, as designed, resulting in a release in gas.”

Residents are also concerned about safety.
Salt domes have been used in the United States for about 60 years to store natural gas. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, salt caverns storage is safer relative to other storage methods. There have been no incidences of fire, leaks or explosion in caverns developed solely for natural gas storage. In addition, JISH has operated without incident since the existing caverns were first developed in 1994.

First permit application submitted had 15 pages of   deficiencies resulting in AGL Resources hiring a firm to write a revised permit application.

TKE Engineering, JISH’s engineering co. was also the engineer for sparsely populated area Moss Bluff, TX natural gas salt dome caverns engineer company, completed in 2002 and had 2 explosions in 2004, AGL Resources, Richard Hyde, Managing Director, was working for Duke Energy, operator, at the time. l


AGL Resources Handed All the Water They Want for Lake Peigneur Operations During Water Shortage

Dem Dirty Dogs!

This interesting info was sent in -

ITEM from 2009 -


Here the Ground Water Resources Commission is talking about wells going dry in the Jefferson Island and the Delcambre area.

Page 101 very interesting:

Testimony of MR. LANGLINAIS:

And I will say at this point that, in the  Jefferson Island and the Delcambre area, there are five known wells that have already gone dry in the last five years, so this is a problem that is occurring. Many of the wells are having to be deepened or redrilled because the water level has dropped and the aquifer has dropped below the intake table — the intake of these wells, and these wells are running dry. 

This is the farming area that shows the rice irrigation areas in south Louisiana, and the drawdown
curves of these wells that are listed in the Crowley — in the Acadia Parish area. I think it shows like a  -60 elevation, and it is dropping 60′ from mean sea  level of zero. So you have about a 60′ drop in the  water table from the edge of the Gulf of Mexico, down to — up — or down to the middle of where it has
(p. 102)
formed this crater, and so, from here to up here is about 60 to 65 miles, and there is a 60′ drawdown right there. And I will illustrate what is happening. These are some of the water levels, and it shows how fast — how quickly the sand — the aquifer levels will change. These were taken in the fall of ’95, and this is in the spring of ’96. This is the same zone, and you see the changes in the contour lines of the — these are metric lines of the drawdown curves in this particular area. This is in the Lake Charles area.

You’ll notice how fast it can change from fall to spring. This is fall of ’95, okay. Now, the impact of subsidence of water withdrawal, this is a slide that was obtained from a meeting that we attended. As oil-land surveyors, we were called — and engineers, you recall at the meeting in Baton Rouge, right — that would have been in November or December, after Hurricane Rita. And the U.S. Geological Survey and the Center for Geoinformatics at LSU had been conducting some  elevation of the benchmarks, and they compared the  benchmark to elevations that they were getting by GPS signals benchmarks, comparing those to what they were finding on present day. And this is the results of their findings, and it shows the amounts of subsidence that had actually occurred in certain areas.

Now, you notice in one area, where you see the Crowley area, there’s a big -3 that shows right there in front — in the magenta or pink, that’s -3′ of subsidence of the ground over — since these tests
(p. 103)
have been conducted.   
About Lake Peigneur

Here is AGL Resources Operating agreement:

3.4. Water Rights; Chicot Aquifer Withdrawal Restriction. Further without limiting the foregoing, and subject to obtaining any approvals required under Applicable Law, *Jefferson Island shall have the right to drill for and extract water as may be necessary, incidental, or desirable for the Permitted Purposes, including, without limitation, . . .

And more - Testimony of MR. LANGLINAIS,  from p. 137 – -

Now, I might also mention that, in an area just directly south of this — of Jefferson Island and Delcambre area, I had farmer come — one landowner come to me and tell me, “Steve, every time my neighbor turns his irrigation well on, my water well goes dry at my house.”

And I think I heard those comments at the last meeting, also. So what do you do? Well, I wait — I tell my farmer to run his well for a day and then stop running his well and then let me pump my water well so I can get water for my house. It’s just one of my clients who lives south of the Erath-Delcambre area, because of the drawdown from his
(p. 138)
water well, it has reached a point below the intake of his existing water well.

So the drawdown phenomena is causing a few problems, as we all know. The drawdown causes the well running dry, and it also causes a further increase of the saltwater encroachment coming into that area where you have that low — that low cone of depression. 

Water meeting transcript -

Page 2 says who all was there. James Welsh from Conservation [Louisiana-speak for Give-Away!] was there.


On page 148 they begin to discuss AGL Resources plans and how the water they want for their salt dome projects and say it  is from a deeper source than farmers’ water blah, blah. This man testifying, SGL’s Goodson,  blithely continues on with details ignoring the impact of seismic activity in Louisiana or the giant salt dome disaster at  Jefferson Island in 1980!

MAP of Jefferson Island area.  It is west of Assumption Parish.


UPDATE, July 23

AGL Resources just contaminates the water and doesn’t try to recover any of it, unlike farmers’ use of water.  After the leaching of the salt dome caverns, the salt water will be pumped into wells, never to be used again.
West Monroe honored for efforts to reduce draw on Sparta aquifer

WEST MONROE, Louisiana — The city of West Monroe has won recognition for its efforts to reduce water usage from the Sparta aquifer, a major source of drinking water for municipalities and water systems west of the Ouachita River.

 At the Louisiana Rural Water Association’s annual awards luncheon this month the city was presented with the association’s award for Outstanding Achievement in Water Conservation, Reclamation and Re-Use.

 The News-Star reports (  ) that the city was honored for a $20 million project that enables a local business, Graphic Packaging, to use recycled wastewater in its production process to eliminate its draw from the aquifer.

Before the project came online in April 2012, Graphic Packaging was the area’s largest consumer of aquifer water.

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